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儿童鞋(Children’s footwear )

发布时间:2017/6/5 13:16:38

儿童鞋(Children’s footwear )


翻译:王占星 李建章

Children’s footwear

儿童鞋

Most infants are born with healthy feet and do not require any stockings or shoes and least of all training shoes to learn how to walk. When toddlers play outside on the street ,their shoes need to be well-fitting.in the early 20th century ,children’s shoes were still fabricated as miniature versions of adult shoes. the first anatomically fit children’s shoes were manufactured starting in 1918. after world war II ,there was neither an awareness of the problem nor money for properly fitting childen’s shoes.in the mid-fifties ,the shoe manufacturer elefanten demanded that children’s feet be measured .in 1954,professor erne maier ,M.D from the research center for last and shoes of the german orthopedic society ,was awarded the research contract. in 1956, he started by measuring the feet of more than 26000 children and adolescents.

 


大部分婴儿出生时都有一双健康的脚,也不需要任何鞋和袜子和最起码的训练鞋去学会走路,当幼儿在街上玩耍时,他们就应该有一双非常合适的鞋。在二十世纪初,童鞋的制作仍然是成人鞋的缩小版,世界上第一双根据儿童足部解剖特点设计的儿童鞋是在1918年,可是在二次世界大战后,政府没有专门的资金和人员支持去研究合脚的儿童鞋,在50年代中期,“小象”制鞋公司要求对儿童的足部尺寸进行测量。1954年,德国矫形协会“鞋楦与鞋类”研究中心的厄恩迈尔教授签署了一项研究计划。从1956年开始他对26000名儿童和青少年的足部尺寸进行了测量。

 

The core message of the initial results :  the width is the leading measure when fitting shoes , when fitting shoes,the ball measurement dictates ,how they sit ,if the shoes are too wide,the foot slips into the tip of the shoe and causes pressure points in the toe area,moreover there was clearance in the heel,where the foot was not restrained but slid back and forth. the researcher mapped a growth curve that unequivocally illustrated how the proportions of children’S  feet change as they grow .interestingly ,length and width did not change evenly ,the result of this study showed that 85% of children new bought shoes that were too small,the measurements of children’ feet taken by the orthopedist H.U Debrunner, under commission of the swiss shoemaker bally, confirmed these results, the german children’s shoes research Group (Arbeitskreis Kinderschuh,AK)was founded as a consequence of this evidence ; the guidelines it developed are still in force today.  they include length and width tables and formulas for inner soles. 

 


最初的核心测量结果显示:宽度是鞋子最主要的尺寸,当试鞋时,足的跖围会直接反馈给我们:这个宽度是否合适?如果鞋子太宽,脚滑入鞋的前端,造成鞋头区域有压力点,而且在脚跟处也有间隙,脚不受约束,而且前后滑动,研究人员绘制了一个增长曲线,明确地说明了孩子的脚的比例随着他们的成长而改变,而且长度和宽度变化是不均匀的,他这项研究的结果表明,通过测量,85%的儿童新买的鞋都是不合适的。瑞士巴利bally鞋业足部矫形师德布伦纳(H. U Debrunner)肯定了这一结果。德国儿童鞋研究机构AKArbeitskreis Kinderschuh,)也证实了这一结果,他们制定的指导方案今天仍然有效,其中包括鞋内底(楦底样)的长度和宽度的表格和计算公式。

 

2.1 the wide-medium-slim(wms)system

2.1 WMS(宽—中—窄)系统   

 

The “additional widths offering “ approach adopted in 1965 was renamed in 1974 ,it is now called the wide-medium-slim system or wms for short:W=Wide,M=medium.S=slim

“额外宽度提供”体系于1965年被采纳,1974年被重新命名过一次,现在该体系被称为WMS(wide-medium-slim )体系,也被称之为“WMS特殊体系(宽、中、窄)”

Unfortunately ,the quality controls for WMS shoes tended to be carried out insufficiently ,the former German Demmocratic Repulic(GDR) had a comparable system with more sophisticated measurement taking and better verification ,it was unfortunate ,however ,that the capacity was lacking to manufacture enough shoes in various widths.


然而不幸的是,WMS体系对于鞋类质量控制的开展效果并不好,它并没有得到很好推广。在同一时代,前东德(民主德国)也研发了一套复杂的脚型测量体系,但是很遗憾,它并不能满足不同脚宽儿童的需求。

More recent foot measurements on children have shown that the proportions of children ‘s feet have change in recent years Children are becoming larger and heavier with accordingly wider and longer feet .

近期更多的儿童足部测量结果显示:儿童脚型尺寸比例发生了变化,学生体型变得更大体重也变得更重,相应的脚长和脚宽也都跟着增长。

2.2 Measuring children’s feet

儿童脚型测量

 

In 1996 professor H.H WEEIZ M D from the clinic for technical orthopedics in munster .in cooperation with the Guild for orthopedic shoe technology ,launched the first kids feet day of the city of munster to combat the still -previailing misconceptions about how to fit children’s shoes .


1996年一位来自德国明斯特矫形诊所的H.H WEEIZ M D教授组织了一次儿童脚型测量活动。他联合矫形鞋协会一同在明斯特市开展该项活动,当初的目的是为了反驳当时仍然流行的儿童足—鞋适配的一些错误观念。

As previously ,the objective was still to comprehensively educate parents and verify implementation of the WMS system .Based on professor Maier’s evidence and facts,the inner sole clearly dictates lengths and widths. calibrated foot measuring equipmoent is a prerequisite for measuring feet .

因为,在以前人们的观念中,儿童鞋的首要目标仍然是继续教育家长相信WMS系统的科学性,并且继续验证和贯彻实施这一体系。基于Maier教授的事实和证据,足部测量之前必须首先要对足部测量设备进行校准。

 

Seven different measuring devices sold on the market were testd .professor Maier added smaller toe allowances to the smaller shoe size:shoe size 18 with toe allowance B-D of 9 mm up to shoe size 30 with toe allowance of 15mm .the of 9 mm up to size 30 with toe allowance of 15 mm.

它们推出了7款不同的足部测量设备在市场上进行测试,并且Maier教授增加了最小号儿童鞋的最小放余量。其中法码18#的婴儿鞋,允许的放余量为9mm,以此递推到30#中童鞋时的放余量为15mm。儿童鞋的放余量区间为915mm(1830#).

the numbers plotted on a graph in the coordinate system produced a curve .however,the curve of most the measuring equipment usually a line .that made it clear that mang measuring devices produced the wrong measurements according to the WMS system (Fit.5)

根据测量结果,它们绘制了相应的坐标曲线。然而,大多数测量设备显示的测量结果最终只是一条直线。这表明根据WMS体系许多机器测量的结果都是错误的。

the device from the German shoe instiute (DSI)was the only one that produced correct sizing .one of its disadvantages ,however, was a loose mechanism that allowed deviations偏差 of 2-5mm.We equipped the devices with a stable metal mechanism that allowed no play whatsoever .the WMS DSI devices available on today’s market feature mechanicalimprovements.

最终的事实证明,在所有的测量设备中,来自德国制鞋研究所(DSI)的脚型测量仪是唯一能得出正确鞋号的设备。但是它也并不完美,它存在25mm的测量误差。我们对这台机器加装了一个金属稳定装置,使它不能随意挪动。这套德国制鞋研究所的WMS鞋号体系测量系统目前被应用于商场选鞋之中,未来它还有很大改进提升的空间。 

Shoe size has always been critically dependent on internal shoe length.for instance . 

 shoes labelled with size 26(pairs stitch )in actual fact only had an internal shoe length for size 24. 

一般情况下,鞋号尺寸的大小严重依赖于鞋内底的长度,例如,标注为26码(巴黎尺寸—即法码,译者注)的鞋子,实际上内底的长度只有24码。

 the extent to which this error was by intent or ignorance on the part of the shoe industry cannot be determined , the fact is that parents buy their kids shoes that are too small and later the children require new shoes at much shorter intervals.  这个错误被制鞋厂家有意无意的忽略掉了,事实上,这导致家长给小孩买鞋子时总会太短或者小孩对新鞋的要求更换频率总是太快。

 


that is what makes it that much more important to check the internal length and width of shoes in advance.

这就是为什么要事先检查儿童鞋内底长度的重要性。

for this purpose we used verified inner soles templates that were inserted in the shoes.

为了达到这个目的,我们通常使用一个校正过的鞋内底模板来进行测试。这个模板能够直接放入鞋内腔进行量测内底大小。

if the templates bulged塞满 ,the shoes were called “high-punched” after educating the parents about these misconceptions, we hand them a tape measure so that they can check the internal shoe length themselves.

如果该模板塞满了鞋腔,那么这个鞋被称之为“高压力”型童鞋,以此为例,我们应当教育家长改变认识上的错误概念。并且我们会教给他们用带尺自己直接测量鞋子内底的长度。

 

children’s feet are softer and more pliable(柔软) than adults’feet .for this reason ,children tend to not be all that bothered by shoes that are too short.

儿童足部相对于成人来说通常较柔软,基于这个原因,儿童往往不会受到鞋类太短带来的烦恼。

 

 

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